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What is analoge and digital signals, Advantages and Disadvantages of Digital signals, introduction to Number Systems, Types of Number Systems, Conversion of one number system into another, r’s and (r-1)’s complements of numbers.

Number Representation in Binary: Sign-bit representaion, 1’s complement representation, 2’s complement representation, Floating point repersentation.

Introduction to Binary Codes, Types of Binary Codes: BCD Code (8-4-2-1 Code, 4-2-2-1 Code, 5-4-2-1 Code), Excess-3 Code,Gray Code, n-ary Gray Code, Conversion of Binary codes into other codes, High Density BCD, Self Complenting Codes.

Applecation of Binary Codes.

Alphamuneric Codes: ASCII Code and EBCDIC Codes.

Inroduction of Error Detection and Correction, Parity Code, Repetition Code, Cyclic Redundancy Code (CRC), Hamming Code

Dcimal: Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division. Binary: Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division. Octal: Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division. Hexadecimal: Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division.

Addition and Subtraction of Binary, Decimal, Octal and Hexadecimal numbers by usind r’s and (r-1)’s Complement representation.

BCD : Addition and Subtraction, Excess-3 : Addition and Subtraction of BCD.

Over Flow Concept.

Introduction of boolean Algebra, Boolean Operators(AND, OR, NOT), Logic Operations (AND , OR, NOT, NAND, NOR), Laws of Algebra, Boolean Theorems, Minimization of logic expression by using Boolean Algebra, Repesentaion of Boolean Functions: Caninical Form, Standard Form, Minterm, Maxterm, Sum of product (SOP), Product of sum (POS), Standard SOP, Standard POS, Truth table Form, Venn Diagram Form, Statement Form.

Introduction of K-Map, 2,3,4, and 5 Variable K-Map, Simplification Rules, Simplification of logical function by using K-Map, Implicants, Prime Implicants, Essential Implicants.

Concept of Negative and Positive logic.

Introduction of Logic Gates : Basic Gates (AND, OR, NOT), Cascading of NOT Gates as Buffer and Aastable Multivibrator, Inhibit Gates, Universal Gates, Special purpose Gates, Realization of all logic Gates by using Universal Gates, Realization of logic expression by logic Gates .

Introduction to Logic Circuits: Combinational and Sequential circuits, Difference between Conbinational and Sequential Circuits.

Combinational Circuits: Design Procedure, Arithematic Logic Circuits: Half Adder, Full Adder, Half Subtractor, Full Subtractor, Binary Parallel Adder, Look- Ahead Carry Adder,Serial Adder, Controlled inverter (1’s Complement Circuit), Adder and Subtractor using 2’s complement representation, BCD Adder, Comparator

Code Converter: Binary to Gray Code, Gray to Binary, BCD to Excess-3 , Excess-3 to BCD.

Introduction to Multiplexers (MUX): 2n:1 MUX(n=1,2,3,4……), Designing of the higher order MUX by using the lower order MUX, MUX as Universal GATE, Implementing Boolean Function with MUX : Method 1 and method 2,

Introduction of Demultipexer: 1:2n DMUX (n=1,2,3,4…..) Designing of the higher order DMUX by using the lower order DMUX.

Introduction of Encoder: Octal to binary encoder, Decimal to BCD encoder, Hexadecimal to Binary encoder. Parity Encoder: Parity Bit Generator and checker.

Introduction of Decoder: 2X4 line Decoder, 3X8 line Decoder, Designing of Higher Order Decoder by Lower Order Decoder, Designing of Half and Full Adder , Half and Full Subtractor, BCD to Seven Segment Decoder.

Introduction to Hazards: Static Hazard, Dynamic Hazard, Essential Hazard,

Introduction of Sequential Circuits, Classification of Sequential Circuits, Latches and Flip-Flops, Diffderence between Latches and Flip-Flops, Triggering: Level and Edge triggering, S-R latch by using NAND and NOR Gates, S-R FF, D FF, T FF, J-K FF.

Race around condition in J-K FF, Method to overcome the Race Around Condition , Master – Slave J-K FF.

Truth table, Excitation Table, and Characteristic Tables of all FFs, State diagram of all FFs.

Conversion of Flip – Flops.

Propagation Delay, Set up time, Maximum clock frequency, Asynchronous active pulse width, Clock pulse high and low time, Power dissipation, Clock Transition time.

Application of Flip-Flops.

Introduction to registers, Buffer Register, Shift Register, Classification of Registers (SISO, SIPO, PISO, PIPO), Bi-Directional Register.

Application of Shift Register: Time Delay, Data Conversion, Ring Counter, Squence Generator Arithematic operation

Introduction to Counter, Classification of Counters : Asynchronous and Synchronous Counters , MODULUS Number and Modulus Counter. Concept of PRESET and CLEAR inputs.

Ripple Counter (Asynchronous Counter): Up Counter, Down Counter, Up-Down Counter.

Shift Register Counters (Synchronous Counter): Ring Counter, Johnson Counter (Twisted Ring Counter), Series Carry Counter.

Synchronous Counter Design.

Introduction to FSM, Types of FSM : Mealy and Moore, Synthesis of FSM, Design of Sequence Detector and Generator.

Introduction to Logic Families, Switching Circuits, Classification of Logic Family, Characteristics of logic family,

Explaination of different logic families and Designing of logic Gates.

Introduction to Semiconductor Memories: Memory Devices, Memory Parameters, Memory Specification, Memory Classification.

Introduction to PLD and Fixed logic, PROM, Devices, PLA and PAL.

Introduction to A/D and D/A Converters,

D to A Converter: Weighted Resister DAC, R- 2R ladder DAC, Specification of Digital To Analog Converter.

A to D Converter: The Counter type ADC, Flash Type ADC, Successive Approximation Type ADC, Dual Slope Integrating Type ADC, Specification of Analog To Digital Converter.