GATE Electronics and Communication Engineering Lecture Plan
Digital Circuits and Systems
Total Duration Of Course 60 Hours
Each Class is of 3 Hours
Day 1  Introduction of Digital Electronics & Number systems 
What is analogue and digital signals, Advantages and Disadvantages of Digital signals, introduction to Number Systems, Types of Number Systems, Conversion of one number system into another, r’s and (r1)’s complements of numbers.
Number Representation in Binary: Signbit representaion, 1’s complement representation, 2’s complement representation, Floating point repersentation. 
Day 2 
Different Codes (Nonbinary, Binary and Alphanumeric Codes) 
Introduction to Binary Codes, Types of Binary Codes: BCD Code (8421 Code, 4221 Code, 5421 Code), Excess3 Code, Gray Code, nary Gray Code, Conversion of Binary codes into other codes, HighDensity BCD, Self Complementing Codes.
Application of Binary Codes. Alphamuneric Codes: ASCII Code and EBCDIC Codes. 
Day 3 
Error Detection and Correction Codes 
Introduction of Error Detection and Correction, Parity Code, Repetition Code, Cyclic Redundancy Code (CRC), Hamming Code 
Day 4 
Arithmetic Operations 
Decimal: Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division. Binary: Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division. Octal: Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division. Hexadecimal: Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division.
Addition and Subtraction of Binary, Decimal, Octal and Hexadecimal numbers by using r’s and (r1)’s Complement representation. BCD: Addition and Subtraction, Excess3: Addition and Subtraction of BCD. Over Flow Concept. 
Assignment and Test
Day 5 
Boolean Algebra 
Introduction of Boolean Algebra, Boolean Operators(AND, OR, NOT), Logic Operations (AND , OR, NOT, NAND, NOR), Laws of Algebra, Boolean Theorems, Minimization of logic expression by using Boolean Algebra, Representations of Boolean Functions: Canonical Form, Standard Form, Minterm, Maxterm, Sum of product (SOP), Product of sum (POS), Standard SOP, Standard POS, Truth table Form, Venn Diagram Form, Statement Form. 
Day 6 
Karnaugh Map and Negative and Positive logic 
Introduction of KMap, 2,3,4, and 5 Variable KMap, Simplification Rules, Simplification of logical function by using KMap, Implicants, Prime Implicants, Essential Implicants.
The concept of Negative and Positive logic. 
Day 7 
Logic Gates and Switching Circuits 
Introduction of Logic Gates: Basic Gates (AND, OR, NOT), Cascading of NOT Gates as Buffer and Astable Multivibrator, Inhibit Gates, Universal Gates, Special purpose Gates, Realization of all logic Gates by using Universal Gates, Realization of logic expression by logic Gates. 
Assignment and Test
Day 8 
Logic Circuits (Combinational Circuits Arithemetic Circuits) 
Introduction to Logic Circuits: Combinational and Sequential circuits, Difference between Conbinational and Sequential Circuits.
Combinational Circuits: Design Procedure, Arithematic Logic Circuits: Half Adder, Full Adder, Half Subtractor, Full Subtractor, Binary Parallel Adder, Look Ahead Carry Adder, Serial Adder, Controlled inverter (1’s Complement Circuit), Adder and Subtractor using 2’s complement representation, BCD Adder, Comparator 
Day 9 
Logic Circuits (Combinational Circuits NonArithmetic Circuits) 
Code Converter: Binary to Gray Code, Gray to Binary, BCD to Excess3, Excess3 to BCD.
Introduction to Multiplexers (MUX): MUX(n=1,2,3,4……), Designing of the higher order MUX by using the lower order MUX, MUX as Universal GATE, Implementing Boolean Function with MUX: Method 1 and method 2, 
Day 10 
Logic Circuits (Combinational Circuits NonArithemetic Circuits) Cont…. 
Introduction of Demultiplexer: 1: DMUX (n=1,2,3,4…..) Designing of the higher order DMUX by using the lower order DMUX.
Introduction of Encoder: Octal to the binary encoder, Decimal to BCD encoder, Hexadecimal to Binary encoder. Parity Encoder: Parity Bit Generator and checker. 
Day 11 
NonArithmetic Circuits and Hazards 
Introduction of Decoder: 2X4 line Decoder, 3X8 line Decoder, Designing of Higher Order Decoder by Lower Order Decoder, Designing of Half and Full Adder, Half and Full Subtractor, BCD to Seven Segment Decoder.
Introduction to Hazards: Static Hazard, Dynamic Hazard, Essential Hazard, 
Assignment and Test
Day 12 
Logic Circuits (Sequential Circuits) 
Introduction of Sequential Circuits, Classification of Sequential Circuits, Latches and FlipFlops, Difference between Latches and FlipFlops, Triggering: Level and Edge triggering, SR latch by using NAND and NOR Gates, SR FF, D FF, T FF, JK FF.
Race around condition in JK FF, Method to overcome the Race Around Condition, MasterSlave JK FF. Truth table, Excitation Table, and Characteristic Tables of all FFs, State diagram of all FFs. Conversion of Flip – Flops. 
Day 13 
Operating Characteristics of Flip Flops 
Propagation Delay, Set up time, Maximum clock frequency, Asynchronous active pulse width, Clock pulse high and low time, Power dissipation, Clock Transition time.
Application of FlipFlops. 
Day 14 
Registers 
Introduction to registers, Buffer Register, Shift Register, Classification of Registers (SISO, SIPO, PISO, PIPO), BiDirectional Register.
Application of Shift Register: Time Delay, Data Conversion, Ring Counter, Sequence Generator Arithematic operation 
Day 15 
Counter 
Introduction to Counter, Classification of Counters: Asynchronous and Synchronous Counters, MODULUS Number and Modulus Counter. The concept of PRESET and CLEAR inputs.
Ripple Counter (Asynchronous Counter): Up Counter, Down Counter, UpDown Counter. Shift Register Counters (Synchronous Counter): Ring Counter, Johnson Counter (Twisted Ring Counter), Series Carry Counter. Synchronous Counter Design. 
Assignment and Test
Day 16 
Finite State Machines/ Model 
Introduction to FSM, Types of FSM: Mealy and Moore, Synthesis of FSM, Design of Sequence Detector and Generator. 
Day 17 
Logic Families 
Introduction to Logic Families, Switching Circuits, Classification of Logic Family, Characteristics of logic family.
Explaination of different logic families and Designing of logic Gates. 
Day 18 
Semiconductor Memories and Programmable Logic Devices 
Introduction to Semiconductor Memories: Memory Devices, Memory Parameters, Memory Specification, Memory Classification.
Introduction to PLD and Fixed logic, PROM, Devices, PLA and PAL. 
Assignment and Test
Day 19 
A/D and D/A Converters 
Introduction to A/D and D/A Converters,
D to A Converter: Weighted Resister DAC, R 2R ladder DAC, Specification of Digital To Analog Converter. 
Day 20 
A/D and D/A Converters Cont….. 
A to D Converter: The Counter type ADC, Flash Type ADC, Successive Approximation Type ADC, Dual Slope Integrating Type ADC, Specification of Analog To Digital Converter. 
Assignment and Test
Three Full Syllabus Test
Electronic Devices and Circuits
Total Duration Of Course 84 Hours
Each Class is of 3 Hours
Day 1 
Electron Dynamics and Electron Emission 
Introduction to Electron Dynamics, Structure of atom, Motion of a charged particle in the Electric field, Electron volt, Current density, Force in Magnetic field, Motion of electron in Magnetic field.
Introduction to Electron Emission, Bohr’s Atomic Model, Electron Orbits and Energy Level, Electron Emission and Work Function, Thermionic Emission, Photoelectric Emission: Laws of Photoelectronic Emission. 
Day 2 
Semiconductor Physics 
Semiconductor Materials, Elemental Semiconductor Materials, Compound Semiconductor Materials, Crystalline Structure, Energy Band Theory of Crystals, Energy Bands in Solids, Insulator Semiconductor and metals, Direct and Indirect Semiconductor, Conduction in Solids, Drift and Diffusion Currents.
Introduction to atomic bonds: Metallic Bonds, Covalent Bonds, and Ionic Bonds. 
Day 3 
Semiconductor Physics 
FermiDirac Energy Distribution, Intrinsic Semiconductors, Production of Holes and Free electrons, Carrier Generation and Recombination, Conduction in Intrinsic Semiconductor, Effects of Heat and light on conductivity, Fermi level in an Intrinsic Semiconductor. 
Day 4 
Semiconductor Physics 
Extrinsic Semiconductors: Types of impurities, Ntype and PType Semiconductor, Terms used in Extrinsic Semiconductors, Effect of temperature on Extrinsic Semiconductors.
Charge Carriers, Majority and Minority Charge Carriers. Mass Action Law, Charge Densities in an Extrinsic Semiconductor. Charge Neutrality: Compensated Semiconductors. 
Assignment and Test
Day 5 
Semiconductor Physics 
Relaxation time, collision time and mean free path, Conductivity in Metals and Semiconductors, Einstein Relationship, Carrier Concentration in Semiconductors, Fermi levels in an intrinsic Semiconductors, Intrinsic Concentration, Fermi Level in Extrinsic Semiconductor ( NType and PType)
Variation of Due to Doping concentration and Temperature. Degenerate and NonDegenerate Semiconductors.

Day 6 
Semiconductor Physics 
Carrier Life Time, Drift of Carrier in Electric and Magnetic Field: Mobility, Effect of Temperature and Doping on Mobility, Effect of Doping on the Conductivity, Velocity Saturation,
Diffusion of Carrier, Diffusion and Drift of carriers, Continuation Equation, Hall Effect, Hall Angle, Application of Hall Effect. 
Day7 
Basic Structure of PN Junction 
Introduction of Basic Structure of PN Junction, Equilibrium Conditions: Contact Potential, Equilibrium Fermi Levels, Electric Field, Space Charge Width. 
Assignment and Test
Day 8 
PN Junction As a Diode 
Forward Biasing, Zero Biasing: Builtin Potential Barrier, Reverse Biasing.
MetalSemiconductor Junction: ShortCircuited and Open Circuited PN Junction, Large Forward Voltages, Bulk resistance, Energy Band Structure of an Open Circuited PN Junction, VI Characteristics of PN Junction. Important terms used in PN Junction: Breakdown Voltage, Knee Voltage, Maximum Forward Current, Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV), Maximum Power Rating 
Day 9 
Junction Diode 
Junction Breakdown, Ideal Diode, Current Components in PN Diode, Quantitative Theory of PN Currents, Diffusion Length, Forward Currents, Reverse Saturation current, Temperature Dependence of PN Diodes.
Diode resistance: Forward Resistance, DC or Static Resistance, AC or Dynamic resistance. 
Day 10 
Junction Diode 
Real Diode, Piecewise Linear Diode Characteristics, DC load lines,
Transition and Diffusion Capacitance: Transition (or Space charge) Capacitance, Step graded Junction, linearly Graded junction (or Growth Junction). Diffusion (or Storage) Capacitance. 
Day 11 
Junction Diode 
Equivalent Circuit of a Diode.
PN Diode Switching Times: Diode Reverse Time, Storage and Transition Times. Switching Diodes, Reverse Bias Breakdown: Zener breakdown and Avalanche breakdown 
Assignment and Test
Day 12 
Special Diodes 
Special Diodes: Introduction to Zener Diode, VI Characteristics of Zener Diode, Zener Impedance, Equivalent Circuit.
Tunnel Diode: Introduction to Tunnel Diode, VI Characteristics of Tunnel Diode, Depletion Region and Energy Band Diagrams, Equivalent Circuit of Tunnel Diode, Advantages and Disadvantages. 
Day 13 
Special Diodes 
PIN Diode: Introduction, Equivalent Circuits.
Varactor Diode: Introduction, Equivalent Circuits, varactor diode in Tuning Circuit. Point Contact Diode, Step Recovery Diode, Fast Recovery Diodes, Schottky Diode, 
Day 14 
Optoelectronic Diodes 
Photo Diode, Photovoltaic or Solar Cells, LEDs 
Day 15 
Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT) 
Introduction to BJTs, Transistor terminals, Transistor Action: unbiased transistor, Operation of Transistor, Operation of PNP Transistor.
Transistor Biasing: Different Operating Conditions for transistor (MODE OF OPERATIONS), Transistor Current Components: Introduction, emitter Efficiency, Transport Factor, Large Signal Current Gain DC Current Gain, Small Signal Current Gain 
Assignment and Test
Day 16 
Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT) 
Generalized Expression for Collector Current, Current Amplification Factors, and a relationship between them.
Base Spreading Resistance, EberMoll Model. Transistor Circuit Configurations (CB, CE, CC) and their Input and Output Characteristics. 
Day 17 
Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT) 
Early Effect and Base – Width Modulation, Transistor DC and AC load lines. Standard Notation for Voltages and Currents, Transistor as Diode, Thermal Runaway, Transistor approximation, DC Equivalent Circuits, Beta Rule. 
Assignment and Test
Day 18 
Field Effect Transistors (JFETs) 
Introduction to FETs, JFETs: Construction, Standard Notations, Schematic Symbols, Polarity Conventions, Operation, Characteristics of JFET(Output or Drain Characteristic and Transfer Characteristic), Advantages and Disadvantage of JFETs, FETS Configurations, JFET Temperature Effects, JFET Parameters, DC Load Line and Bias point, FET Biasing.
Equivalent Model of FET. 
Day 19 
MOSFETs 
Introduction to MOSFETs Types of MOSFETs, Operation of Depletion And Enhancement MOSFETs, Derivation of drain Characteristics, Parameters of MOSFETs. 
Day 20 
MOSFETs 
Channel Length Modulation, Body Bias Effects, MOSFETs Equivalent Circuits. 
Day 21 
MOSFETs 
Two Terminal MOS Structure, Basic Structure Of MOS Capacitor (Using Band Model), MOSFET Structure, CV Characteristics of MOS.
MOSFET as Resistor, Dual Gate MOSFETs, 
Day 22 
MOSFETs 
Power MOSFETs (Or VFETs), Complementary MOSFETs: CMOS Handling, MOSFET Handling.
Comparison between NMOS and P MOS. 
Assignment and Test
Day 23 
Power Semiconductor Devices 
Introduction to Power Semiconductor Devices. Power Diodes, Thyristors, Comparison between Thyratrons and Thyristors, Comparison between Transistors and Thyristors, 
Day 24 
Power Semiconductor Devices 
SCR: Construction and operation, Diode Model and Two Transistor Model, VI Characteristics, Dynamic Characteristics: Turn on Characteristics and Turn Off Characteristics, Gate Characteristics. 
Day 25 
Power Semiconductor Devices 
Turning ON and OFF Methods, TRIAC, DIAC, and Shockley Diode.
Silicon Controlled Switch (SCS), Gate Turn Off (GTO) Thyristors. 
Day 26 
Power Semiconductor Devices 
Power Transistors : BJT, IGBT, UJT 
Assignment and Test
Day 27 
Integrated Circuits 
Introduction, Discrete Circuits, Integrated Circuits, Merits and Limitations, Classification of ICs, Level of Integration
(SSI,MSI, LSI, VLSI, ULSI ), Basic Monolithic IC. 
Day 28 
Integrated Circuits 
Monolithic or Planer Processes of IC production: Crystal Growth of Substrate, Epitaxial Growth, Oxidation,
Photolithographic Process, Isolation Diffusion, Base diffusion Emitter, Aluminum Metallization, Scribing and Mounting. Package Types of IC, 
Assignment and Test
Three Full Syllabus Test
Network Theory
Total Duration Of Course 63 Hours
Each Class is of 3 Hours
Day 1 
Basic Concepts 
Network Variables, Circuit Elements, Sourses , Voltage and Current Division Rule, Equivalent Resistance,Introduction to KCL, KVL 
Day 2 
Basic Concepts cont.. 
KCL, KVL, Sourse transformation, 
Assignment and Test
Day 3 
Network Theorems 
Superposition and Thevinin theorem. 
Day 4 
Network Theorems 
Nortan, Maximum Power, Reciprocity and Millman’s Theorem. 
Day 5 
Network Theorems 
Tellegen’s , Subtitution theorem, 
Assignment and Test
Day 6 
Capacitor and Inductors 
Introduction to Capacitors and Inductor and their properties. 
Assignment and Test
Day7/ Day 8 
First Order Circuits 
Source Free RC and RL Circuits, Step Response of RC and RL Circuits 
Assignment and Test
Day 9 
DC Transient 
Analysis of Current and Voltage during Switching. 
Assignment and Test
Day 10 
Second Order RLC Circuits 
Source Free and Step Response of Series and Parallel RLC Circuits. 
Assignment and Test
Day 11 
AC analysis 
Average and RMS Values, Phasor Relationship, Circuit Analysis in Phasor Domain. 
Day 12/ Day 13 
AC analysis Con… 
AC Power analysis, AC theorems 
Assignment and Test
Day 14 
AC analysis Con… 
Frequency Response, Resonance Circuits, Scaling, Transfer Function. 
Assignment and Test
Day 15/ Day 16 
AC analysis Con… 
Transient Free AC analysis, Circuit Analysis using Laplace Transform 
Assignment and Test
Day 17 
Two Port Network 
Two Port Network Parameters and their relationship, Symmetrical and reciprocal Networks. 
Day 18 
Two Port Network Cont…. 
Interconnection of the twoport network, Concept of image impedance and iterative impedance. 
Assignment and Test
Day 19 
Magnetically Coupled Circuits 
Mutual Inductance, Dot Convention, Analysis of Circuits, Series Aiding and Series Opposing Connections, parallel Connection of Coupled Coils. 
Day 20 
Magnetically Coupled Circuits 
Energy Stored in Coupled Circuits, Linear Transformer, T And PI Equivalent, Ideal Transformer. 
Assignment and Test
Day 21 
Three Phase Circuits 
Y and Delta Connected 
Assignment and Test
Three Full Syllabus Test
Control Systems
Total Duration Of Course 39 Hours
Each Class is of 3 Hours
Day 1 
Transfer Function 
Properties of the Transfer function, Advantages of State Space representation, Open loop and Closed Loop Systems, Types of Singularities. 
Day 2 
Transfer Function 
Block reduction and Mason’s Gain Formula, LTI system responses. 
Day 3 
Stability/ Time Domain Analysis 
Routh’s Hurwitz Criteria, First Order and Second Order Systems, 
Day 4/ Day 5 
Time Domain Analysis 
Steady State Error, Effects of adding poles and zeros, Dominant poles, Sensitivity. 
Assignment and Test
Day 6 
Frequency Domain Analysis 
Correlation between time and frequency response and its specification, Effect of adding poles or zeros, Polar plots. 
Day7 
Frequency Domain Analysis 
Nyquist Criteria. GM and PM Concept. 
Assignment and Test
Day 8 
Frequency Domain Analysis 
Bode Plot. 
Day 9 
Frequency Domain Analysis 
Constant M and N Circles, Root locus technique. 
Assignment and Test
Day 10 
Design of Control System 
Proportional Controller, PD, PI, PID, Derivative feedback Controller, Introduction to the compensator. 
Day 11 
Design of Control System 
Lead, Lag, and Laglead Compensator. 
Assignment and Test
Day 12 
State variable analysis 
State variable system, State space representation, solution of state equation, State Model. 
Day 13 
State variable analysis 
Transfer function, Stability, Diagonalising, Controllability, observability, State Feedback Control System. 
Assignment and Test
Three Full Syllabus Test
Electromagnetic Field Theory
Total Duration Of Course 69 Hours
Each Class is of 3 Hours
Day 1 
Coordinate Systems 
Coordinate systems, vector algebra and calculus. 
Assignment and Test
Day 2 
Electrostatics 
Charge configuration, Coulobm’s law, Electric field. 
Day 3 
Electrostatics 
Electric field due to special geometry . 
Day 4 
Electrostatics 
Charge Calculation, Electric flux, Gauss law, 
Assignment and Test
Day 5  Electrostatics 
Work, Potential 
Day 6 
Electrostatics 
Relation between potential and electric field. Dipole, Poission and Laplacian Equation 
Day 7 
Electrostatics 
Continuity of current each boundary condition, 
Assignment and Test
Day 8 
Electrostatics 
Electric field in matters. 
Day 9 
Electrostatics 
Electric field in matters. 
Assignment and Test
Day 10 
Magnetostatics 
Biota Seurat law, magmatic field intensity due to special geometry 
Day 11 
Magnatoststics 
Amper’s law, magnetic flux density 
Day 12 
Magnatoststics 
Boundary conditions. 
Assignment and Test
Day 13 
EM Waves 
Time varying field, Faraday law. Introduction to EM Waves. 
Day 14 
EM Waves 
Maxwell Equations, Transverse plan. 
Day 15 
EM Waves 
Intrinsic impedance, wave propagation in conducting unbounded medium, skin depth. Impedance of medium. 
Assignment and Test
Day 16 
EM Waves 
Polarization, Pointing theorem 
Day 17 
EM Waves 
Reflection, normal and oblique incident 
Assignment and Test
Day 18 
Transmission Line 
Transmission line characteristic impedance expression for V & I at any point. 
Day 19 
Transmission Line 
Distortion less condition, delay, expression for V & I any point, Impedence. 
Day 20 
Transmission Line 
Opencircuit and short circuit line, Stub matching. Properties for Lambda by 2 and Lambda by 4 line. 
Assignment and Test
Day 21 
Transmission Line 
Reflection, reflection coefficient, VSWR power reflection coefficient, Impedance matching quater wave transformer

Day 22 
Transmission Line 
Schmitt’s chart,

Day 23  Transmission Line 
Waveguides, TEM wave propagation. TEM wave 
Assignment and Test
Three Full Syllabus Test
Communication System
Total Duration Of Course 54 Hours
Each Class is of 3 Hours
Day 1 
Introduction 
Review of Fourier transform, concept of bandwidth, modulation demodulation, AM 
Day 2 
A.M modulation 
Creation and detection of AM, power calculation, efficiency, and introduction to DSBSC, 
Day 3 
DSBSC 
Creation and detection, efficiency, 
Day 4 
SSBSC, VSB 
Creation and detection, Comparison with other AM Modulations 
Assignment and Test
Day 5 
FDM 
Mixer, Angle Modulation 
Day 6 
Angle Modulation 
WBFM, Transmission Bandwidth, Carson’s rule, and cremation of WBFM. 
Day 7 
AM Receiver 
TRF, and SHD receiver, FM receiver. 
Assignment and Test
Day 8 
Random Variables 
PDF, CDF, density functions, statistical averages, random process. 
Day 9 
Random Process 
Statistical Averages, wide sense stationary Ergodicity, properties of Autocorrelation function. 
Assignment and Test
Day 10 
Noise 
White noise, Noise power, its PSD, it’s effects on receivers. 
Day 11 
Noise 
Noise analyses of analog communication FOM. 
Assignment and Test
Day 12 
Digital Communication 
Sampling theorem, PCM, 
Day 13 
Digital Communication 
DPCM, Delta modulates, Regeneration receiver, TDM 
Day 14 
Pulse Analog Communication 
PAM, PWM, TI career, digital multiplexer, ISI. 
Assignment and Test
Day 15 
Band Pass Data Transmission 
ASK, PSK, FSK. 
Day 16 
Band Pass Data Transmission 
Demodulation of ASK, PSK, FSK etc. Mary signaling. Quadrature career, multiplexing, QPSK, constellation diagram. 
Assignment and Test
Day 17 
Noise Analysis 
Mcry continuation, Noise analysis of digital communication and Match filter receiver 
Day 18 
Probability Error 
Probability Error 
Assignment and Test
Three Full Syllabus Test
Signals and Systems
Total Duration Of Course 60 Hours
Each Class is of 3 Hours
Day 1 
Introduction 
Signals and their characteristics, Types of signals, some standard signals, Trans formation, 
Day 2 
Introduction 
Classification of signals 
Day 3 
Systems 
Classification of systems. 
Day 4 
LTI System 
Convolution and Correlation and their properties. 
Assignment and Test
Day 5 to Day 8 
CTFS 
Trigonometric and Exponential Fourier series and their properties. 
Assignment and Test