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# GATE EC Lecture Plan

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### Digital Circuits and Systems

Total  Duration Of Course 60 Hours

Each Class is of 3 Hours

 Day 1 Introduction of Digital Electronics & Number systems What is analogue and digital signals, Advantages and Disadvantages of Digital signals, introduction to Number Systems, Types of Number Systems, Conversion of one number system into another,  r’s and (r-1)’s complements of numbers. Number Representation in Binary: Sign-bit representaion, 1’s complement representation, 2’s complement representation, Floating point repersentation.
 Day 2 Different Codes (Non-binary, Binary and Alphanumeric Codes) Introduction to Binary Codes, Types of Binary Codes: BCD Code (8-4-2-1 Code, 4-2-2-1 Code, 5-4-2-1 Code), Excess-3 Code, Gray Code, n-ary Gray Code, Conversion of Binary codes into other codes, High-Density BCD, Self Complementing Codes. Application of Binary Codes. Alphamuneric Codes: ASCII Code and EBCDIC Codes.
 Day 3 Error Detection and Correction Codes Introduction of Error Detection and Correction, Parity Code, Repetition Code, Cyclic Redundancy Code (CRC), Hamming Code
 Day 4 Arithmetic Operations Decimal: Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division. Binary: Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division. Octal: Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division. Hexadecimal: Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division. Addition and Subtraction of Binary, Decimal, Octal and Hexadecimal numbers by using r’s and (r-1)’s Complement representation. BCD: Addition and Subtraction, Excess-3: Addition and Subtraction of BCD. Over Flow Concept.

Assignment and Test

 Day 5 Boolean Algebra Introduction of Boolean Algebra, Boolean Operators(AND, OR, NOT), Logic Operations (AND , OR, NOT, NAND, NOR), Laws of Algebra, Boolean Theorems, Minimization of logic expression by using Boolean Algebra, Representations of Boolean Functions: Canonical Form, Standard Form, Minterm, Maxterm, Sum of product (SOP), Product of sum (POS), Standard SOP, Standard POS, Truth table Form, Venn Diagram Form, Statement Form.
 Day 6 Karnaugh Map and Negative and Positive logic Introduction of K-Map, 2,3,4, and 5 Variable K-Map, Simplification Rules, Simplification of logical function by using K-Map, Implicants, Prime Implicants, Essential Implicants. The concept of Negative and Positive logic.
 Day 7 Logic Gates and  Switching Circuits Introduction of Logic Gates: Basic Gates (AND, OR, NOT), Cascading of NOT Gates as Buffer and Astable Multivibrator, Inhibit Gates, Universal Gates, Special purpose Gates, Realization of all logic Gates by using Universal Gates, Realization of logic expression by logic Gates.

Assignment and Test

 Day 8 Logic Circuits (Combinational Circuits Arithemetic Circuits) Introduction to Logic Circuits: Combinational and Sequential circuits, Difference between Conbinational and Sequential Circuits. Combinational Circuits: Design Procedure, Arithematic Logic Circuits: Half Adder, Full Adder, Half Subtractor, Full Subtractor, Binary Parallel Adder, Look- Ahead Carry Adder, Serial Adder, Controlled inverter (1’s Complement Circuit), Adder and Subtractor using 2’s complement representation, BCD Adder, Comparator
 Day 9 Logic Circuits (Combinational Circuits Non-Arithmetic Circuits) Code Converter: Binary to Gray Code, Gray to Binary, BCD to Excess-3, Excess-3 to BCD. Introduction to Multiplexers (MUX): MUX(n=1,2,3,4……), Designing of the higher order MUX by using the lower order MUX, MUX as Universal GATE, Implementing Boolean Function with MUX: Method 1 and method 2,
 Day 10 Logic Circuits (Combinational Circuits Non-Arithemetic Circuits)  Cont…. Introduction of Demultiplexer: 1:  DMUX (n=1,2,3,4…..) Designing of the higher order DMUX by using the lower order DMUX. Introduction of Encoder: Octal to the binary encoder, Decimal to BCD encoder, Hexadecimal to Binary encoder. Parity Encoder: Parity Bit Generator and checker.
 Day 11 Non-Arithmetic Circuits and Hazards Introduction of Decoder: 2X4 line Decoder, 3X8 line Decoder, Designing of Higher Order Decoder by Lower Order Decoder, Designing of Half and Full Adder, Half and Full Subtractor, BCD to Seven Segment Decoder. Introduction to Hazards: Static Hazard, Dynamic Hazard, Essential Hazard,

Assignment and Test

 Day 12 Logic Circuits (Sequential Circuits) Introduction of Sequential Circuits, Classification of Sequential Circuits, Latches and Flip-Flops, Difference between Latches and Flip-Flops, Triggering: Level and Edge triggering, S-R latch by using NAND and NOR Gates, S-R FF, D FF, T FF, J-K FF. Race around condition in J-K FF, Method to overcome the Race Around Condition, Master-Slave J-K FF. Truth table, Excitation Table, and Characteristic Tables of all FFs, State diagram of all FFs. Conversion of Flip – Flops.
 Day 13 Operating Characteristics of Flip- Flops Propagation Delay, Set up time, Maximum clock frequency,  Asynchronous active pulse width, Clock pulse high and low time, Power dissipation, Clock Transition time. Application of Flip-Flops.
 Day 14 Registers Introduction to registers, Buffer Register, Shift Register, Classification of Registers (SISO, SIPO, PISO, PIPO), Bi-Directional Register. Application of Shift Register: Time Delay, Data Conversion, Ring Counter, Sequence Generator Arithematic operation
 Day 15 Counter Introduction to Counter, Classification of Counters: Asynchronous and Synchronous Counters, MODULUS Number and Modulus Counter. The concept of PRESET and CLEAR inputs. Ripple Counter  (Asynchronous Counter): Up Counter, Down Counter, Up-Down Counter. Shift Register Counters (Synchronous Counter): Ring Counter, Johnson Counter (Twisted Ring Counter), Series Carry Counter. Synchronous Counter Design.

Assignment and Test

 Day 16 Finite State Machines/ Model Introduction to FSM, Types of FSM: Mealy and Moore, Synthesis of FSM, Design of Sequence Detector and Generator.
 Day 17 Logic Families Introduction to Logic Families, Switching Circuits, Classification of Logic Family, Characteristics of logic family. Explaination of different logic families and Designing of logic Gates.
 Day 18 Semiconductor Memories and Programmable Logic Devices Introduction to Semiconductor Memories:  Memory Devices, Memory Parameters, Memory Specification, Memory Classification. Introduction to PLD and Fixed logic, PROM, Devices, PLA and PAL.

Assignment and Test

 Day 19 A/D and D/A Converters Introduction to A/D and D/A Converters, D to A Converter: Weighted Resister DAC, R- 2R ladder DAC, Specification of Digital To Analog Converter.
 Day 20 A/D and D/A Converters Cont….. A to D Converter: The Counter type ADC, Flash Type ADC, Successive Approximation Type ADC, Dual Slope Integrating Type ADC, Specification of Analog To Digital Converter.

Assignment and Test

Three Full Syllabus Test

### Electronic Devices and Circuits

Total  Duration Of Course 84 Hours

Each Class is of 3 Hours

 Day 1 Electron Dynamics and Electron Emission Introduction to Electron Dynamics, Structure of atom, Motion of a charged particle in the Electric field, Electron volt, Current density, Force in Magnetic field, Motion of electron in Magnetic field. Introduction to Electron Emission, Bohr’s Atomic Model, Electron Orbits and Energy Level, Electron Emission and Work Function, Thermionic Emission, Photoelectric Emission: Laws of Photoelectronic Emission.
 Day 2 Semiconductor Physics Semiconductor Materials, Elemental Semiconductor Materials, Compound Semiconductor Materials, Crystalline Structure, Energy Band Theory of Crystals, Energy Bands in Solids, Insulator Semiconductor and metals, Direct and Indirect Semiconductor,  Conduction in Solids, Drift and Diffusion Currents. Introduction to atomic bonds: Metallic Bonds, Covalent Bonds, and Ionic Bonds.
 Day 3 Semiconductor Physics Fermi-Dirac Energy Distribution, Intrinsic Semiconductors, Production of Holes and Free electrons, Carrier Generation and Recombination, Conduction in Intrinsic Semiconductor, Effects of Heat and light on conductivity, Fermi level in an Intrinsic Semiconductor.
 Day 4 Semiconductor Physics Extrinsic Semiconductors: Types of impurities, N-type and P-Type Semiconductor, Terms used in Extrinsic Semiconductors, Effect of temperature on Extrinsic Semiconductors. Charge Carriers, Majority and Minority Charge Carriers. Mass Action Law, Charge Densities in an Extrinsic Semiconductor. Charge Neutrality: Compensated Semiconductors.

Assignment and Test

 Day 5 Semiconductor Physics Relaxation time, collision time and mean free path, Conductivity in Metals and Semiconductors, Einstein Relationship, Carrier Concentration in Semiconductors, Fermi levels in an intrinsic Semiconductors, Intrinsic Concentration, Fermi Level in Extrinsic Semiconductor ( N-Type and P-Type) Variation of   Due to Doping concentration and Temperature. Degenerate and Non-Degenerate Semiconductors.
 Day 6 Semiconductor Physics Carrier Life Time, Drift of Carrier in Electric and Magnetic Field: Mobility, Effect of Temperature and Doping on Mobility, Effect of Doping on the Conductivity, Velocity Saturation, Diffusion of Carrier, Diffusion and Drift of carriers, Continuation Equation, Hall Effect, Hall Angle, Application of Hall Effect.
 Day7 Basic Structure of P-N Junction Introduction of Basic Structure of P-N Junction, Equilibrium Conditions: Contact Potential, Equilibrium Fermi Levels, Electric Field, Space Charge Width.

Assignment and Test

 Day 8 P-N Junction As a Diode Forward Biasing, Zero Biasing: Built-in Potential Barrier, Reverse Biasing. Metal-Semiconductor Junction: Short-Circuited and Open Circuited P-N Junction, Large Forward Voltages, Bulk resistance, Energy Band Structure of an Open Circuited P-N Junction, V-I Characteristics of P-N Junction. Important terms used in P-N Junction: Breakdown Voltage, Knee Voltage, Maximum Forward Current, Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV), Maximum Power Rating
 Day 9 Junction Diode Junction Breakdown, Ideal Diode, Current Components in P-N Diode, Quantitative Theory of P-N Currents, Diffusion Length, Forward Currents, Reverse Saturation current, Temperature Dependence of P-N Diodes. Diode resistance: Forward Resistance, DC or Static Resistance, AC or Dynamic resistance.
 Day 10 Junction Diode Real Diode, Piecewise Linear Diode Characteristics, DC load lines, Transition and Diffusion Capacitance: Transition (or Space charge) Capacitance, Step graded Junction, linearly Graded junction (or Growth Junction). Diffusion (or Storage) Capacitance.
 Day 11 Junction Diode Equivalent Circuit of a Diode. P-N Diode Switching Times: Diode Reverse Time, Storage and Transition Times. Switching Diodes, Reverse Bias Breakdown: Zener breakdown and Avalanche breakdown

Assignment and Test

 Day 12 Special Diodes Special Diodes: Introduction to Zener Diode, V-I Characteristics of Zener Diode, Zener Impedance, Equivalent Circuit. Tunnel Diode: Introduction to Tunnel Diode, V-I Characteristics of Tunnel Diode, Depletion Region and Energy Band Diagrams, Equivalent Circuit of Tunnel Diode, Advantages and Disadvantages.
 Day 13 Special Diodes PIN Diode: Introduction, Equivalent Circuits. Varactor Diode: Introduction, Equivalent Circuits, varactor diode in Tuning Circuit. Point Contact Diode, Step Recovery Diode, Fast Recovery Diodes, Schottky Diode,
 Day 14 Optoelectronic Diodes Photo Diode, Photovoltaic or Solar Cells, LEDs
 Day 15 Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT) Introduction to BJTs, Transistor terminals, Transistor Action: unbiased transistor, Operation of Transistor, Operation of P-N-P Transistor. Transistor Biasing: Different Operating Conditions for transistor (MODE OF OPERATIONS), Transistor Current Components: Introduction, emitter Efficiency, Transport Factor, Large Signal Current Gain DC Current Gain, Small Signal Current Gain

Assignment and Test

 Day 16 Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT) Generalized Expression for Collector Current, Current  Amplification Factors, and a relationship between them. Base Spreading Resistance, Eber-Moll Model. Transistor Circuit Configurations (CB, CE, CC) and their Input and Output Characteristics.
 Day 17 Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT) Early Effect and Base – Width Modulation, Transistor DC and AC load lines. Standard Notation for Voltages and Currents, Transistor as Diode, Thermal Runaway, Transistor approximation, DC Equivalent Circuits, Beta Rule.

Assignment and Test

 Day 18 Field Effect Transistors (JFETs) Introduction to FETs, JFETs: Construction, Standard Notations, Schematic Symbols, Polarity Conventions, Operation, Characteristics of JFET(Output or Drain Characteristic and Transfer Characteristic), Advantages and Disadvantage of JFETs, FETS Configurations, JFET Temperature Effects, JFET Parameters, DC Load Line and Bias point, FET Biasing. Equivalent Model of FET.
 Day 19 MOSFETs Introduction to MOSFETs Types of MOSFETs, Operation of Depletion And Enhancement MOSFETs, Derivation of drain Characteristics, Parameters of MOSFETs.
 Day 20 MOSFETs Channel Length Modulation, Body Bias Effects, MOSFETs Equivalent Circuits.
 Day 21 MOSFETs Two Terminal MOS Structure, Basic Structure Of MOS Capacitor (Using Band Model), MOSFET Structure, C-V Characteristics of MOS. MOSFET as Resistor, Dual Gate MOSFETs,
 Day 22 MOSFETs Power MOSFETs (Or V-FETs), Complementary MOSFETs: CMOS Handling, MOSFET Handling. Comparison between NMOS and P MOS.

Assignment and Test

 Day 23 Power Semiconductor Devices Introduction to Power Semiconductor Devices. Power Diodes, Thyristors, Comparison between Thyratrons and Thyristors, Comparison between Transistors and Thyristors,
 Day 24 Power Semiconductor Devices SCR: Construction and operation, Diode Model and Two Transistor Model, V-I Characteristics, Dynamic Characteristics: Turn on Characteristics and Turn Off Characteristics, Gate Characteristics.
 Day 25 Power Semiconductor Devices Turning ON and OFF Methods, TRIAC, DIAC, and Shockley Diode. Silicon Controlled Switch (SCS), Gate Turn Off (GTO) Thyristors.
 Day 26 Power Semiconductor Devices Power  Transistors : BJT, IGBT, UJT

Assignment and Test

 Day 27 Integrated Circuits Introduction, Discrete Circuits, Integrated Circuits, Merits and Limitations, Classification of ICs, Level of Integration (SSI,MSI, LSI, VLSI, ULSI ), Basic Monolithic IC.
 Day 28 Integrated Circuits Monolithic or Planer Processes of IC production: Crystal Growth of Substrate, Epitaxial Growth, Oxidation, Photolithographic Process, Isolation Diffusion, Base diffusion Emitter, Aluminum Metallization, Scribing and Mounting.  Package Types of IC,

Assignment and Test

Three Full Syllabus Test

### Network Theory

Total  Duration Of Course 63 Hours

Each Class is of 3 Hours

 Day 1 Basic Concepts Network Variables, Circuit Elements, Sourses , Voltage and Current Division Rule, Equivalent Resistance,Introduction  to KCL, KVL
 Day 2 Basic Concepts cont.. KCL, KVL, Sourse transformation,

Assignment and Test

 Day 3 Network Theorems Superposition and Thevinin theorem.
 Day 4 Network Theorems Nortan, Maximum Power, Reciprocity and Millman’s Theorem.
 Day 5 Network Theorems Tellegen’s , Subtitution theorem,

Assignment and Test

 Day 6 Capacitor and Inductors Introduction to Capacitors and Inductor and their properties.

Assignment and Test

 Day7/ Day 8 First Order Circuits Source Free RC and RL Circuits, Step Response of RC and RL Circuits

Assignment and Test

 Day 9 DC Transient Analysis of Current and Voltage during Switching.

Assignment and Test

 Day 10 Second Order RLC Circuits Source Free and Step Response of Series and Parallel RLC Circuits.

Assignment and Test

 Day 11 AC analysis Average and  RMS Values, Phasor Relationship, Circuit Analysis in Phasor Domain.
 Day 12/ Day 13 AC analysis Con… AC Power analysis,  AC theorems

Assignment and Test

 Day 14 AC analysis Con… Frequency Response, Resonance  Circuits, Scaling, Transfer Function.

Assignment and Test

 Day 15/ Day 16 AC analysis Con… Transient Free AC analysis, Circuit Analysis using Laplace Transform

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 Day 17 Two Port Network Two Port Network Parameters and their relationship, Symmetrical and reciprocal Networks.
 Day 18 Two Port Network Cont…. Interconnection of the two-port network, Concept of image impedance and iterative impedance.

Assignment and Test

 Day 19 Magnetically Coupled Circuits Mutual Inductance, Dot Convention, Analysis of Circuits, Series Aiding and Series Opposing  Connections, parallel Connection of Coupled Coils.
 Day 20 Magnetically Coupled Circuits Energy Stored in Coupled Circuits, Linear Transformer, T And PI Equivalent, Ideal Transformer.

Assignment and Test

 Day 21 Three Phase Circuits Y and Delta Connected

Assignment and Test

Three Full Syllabus Test

### Control Systems

Total Duration Of Course 39 Hours

Each Class is of 3 Hours

 Day 1 Transfer Function Properties of the Transfer function, Advantages of State Space representation, Open loop and Closed Loop Systems, Types of Singularities.
 Day 2 Transfer Function Block reduction and Mason’s Gain Formula, LTI system responses.
 Day 3 Stability/ Time Domain Analysis Routh’s Hurwitz Criteria, First Order and Second  Order Systems,
 Day 4/ Day 5 Time Domain Analysis Steady State Error, Effects of adding poles and zeros, Dominant poles, Sensitivity.

Assignment and Test

 Day 6 Frequency Domain Analysis Correlation between time and frequency response and its specification, Effect of adding poles or zeros, Polar plots.
 Day7 Frequency Domain Analysis Nyquist Criteria. GM and PM Concept.

Assignment and Test

 Day 8 Frequency Domain Analysis Bode Plot.
 Day 9 Frequency Domain Analysis Constant M and N Circles, Root locus technique.

Assignment and Test

 Day 10 Design of Control System Proportional Controller, PD, PI, PID, Derivative feedback Controller, Introduction to the compensator.

Assignment and Test

 Day 12 State variable analysis State variable system, State space representation, solution of state equation, State Model.
 Day 13 State variable analysis Transfer function, Stability, Diagonalising, Controllability, observability, State Feedback Control System.

Assignment and Test

Three Full Syllabus Test

### Electromagnetic Field Theory

Total  Duration Of Course 69 Hours

Each Class is of 3 Hours

 Day 1 Coordinate Systems Co-ordinate systems, vector algebra and calculus.

Assignment and Test

 Day 2 Electrostatics Charge configuration, Coulobm’s law, Electric field.
 Day 3 Electrostatics Electric field due to special geometry .
 Day 4 Electrostatics Charge Calculation, Electric flux, Gauss law,

Assignment and Test

 Day 5 Electrostatics Work, Potential
 Day 6 Electrostatics Relation between potential and electric field. Dipole, Poission and Laplacian Equation
 Day 7 Electrostatics Continuity of current each boundary condition,

Assignment and Test

 Day 8 Electrostatics Electric field in matters.
 Day 9 Electrostatics Electric field in matters.

Assignment and Test

 Day 10 Magnetostatics Biota Seurat law, magmatic field intensity due to special geometry
 Day 11 Magnatoststics Amper’s  law, magnetic flux density
 Day 12 Magnatoststics Boundary conditions.

Assignment and Test

 Day 13 EM Waves Time varying field, Faraday law. Introduction to EM Waves.
 Day 14 EM Waves Maxwell Equations, Transverse plan.
 Day 15 EM Waves Intrinsic impedance, wave propagation in conducting unbounded medium, skin depth. Impedance of medium.

Assignment and Test

 Day 16 EM Waves Polarization, Pointing theorem
 Day 17 EM Waves Reflection, normal and oblique incident

Assignment and Test

 Day 18 Transmission Line Transmission line characteristic impedance expression for V & I at any point.
 Day 19 Transmission Line Distortion less condition, delay, expression for V & I any point, Impedence.
 Day 20 Transmission Line Open-circuit and short circuit line, Stub matching. Properties for Lambda by 2 and Lambda by 4  line.

Assignment and Test

 Day 21 Transmission Line Reflection, reflection coefficient, VSWR power reflection coefficient, Impedance  matching quater wave transformer
 Day 22 Transmission Line Schmitt’s chart,
 Day 23 Transmission Line Waveguides, TEM wave propagation. TEM wave

Assignment and Test

Three Full Syllabus Test

#### Communication System

Communication System

Total  Duration Of Course 54 Hours

Each Class is of 3 Hours

 Day 1 Introduction Review of Fourier transform, concept of bandwidth, modulation demodulation, AM
 Day 2 A.M modulation Creation  and detection of AM, power calculation, efficiency, and  introduction to DSBSC,
 Day 3 DSBSC Creation and detection, efficiency,
 Day 4 SSBSC, VSB Creation and detection, Comparison with other AM Modulations

Assignment and Test

 Day 5 FDM Mixer, Angle Modulation
 Day 6 Angle Modulation WBFM, Transmission Bandwidth, Carson’s rule, and cremation of WBFM.

Assignment and Test

 Day 8 Random Variables PDF, CDF, density functions, statistical averages, random process.
 Day 9 Random Process Statistical Averages, wide sense stationary Ergodicity, properties of Auto-correlation function.

Assignment and Test

 Day 10 Noise White noise, Noise power, its PSD, it’s effects on receivers.
 Day 11 Noise Noise analyses of analog communication FOM.

Assignment and Test

 Day 12 Digital Communication Sampling theorem, PCM,
 Day 13 Digital Communication DPCM, Delta modulates, Regeneration receiver, TDM
 Day 14 Pulse Analog Communication PAM, PWM, TI career, digital multiplexer, ISI.

Assignment and Test

 Day 15 Band Pass Data Transmission ASK, PSK, FSK.
 Day 16 Band Pass Data Transmission Demodulation of ASK, PSK, FSK etc. M-ary signaling. Quadrature  career, multiplexing, QPSK, constellation diagram.

Assignment and Test

 Day 17 Noise Analysis M-cry continuation, Noise analysis of digital communication and Match filter receiver
 Day 18 Probability Error Probability Error

Assignment and Test

Three Full Syllabus Test

### Signals and Systems

Total  Duration Of Course 60 Hours

Each Class is of 3 Hours

 Day 1 Introduction Signals and their characteristics, Types of signals, some standard signals, Trans formation,
 Day 2 Introduction Classification of signals
 Day 3 Systems Classification of systems.
 Day 4 LTI System Convolution and Correlation and their properties.

Assignment and Test

 Day 5 to Day 8 CTFS Trigonometric and Exponential Fourier series and their properties.

Assignment and Test 